linux

Linux (/ˈlɪnəks/ LIN-uks or, less frequently used, /ˈlaɪnəks/ LYN-uks) is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. [read more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux]

  • Make sure that your data are safe and that your backups are working and in a safe place: obviously not on the server you are currently upgrading!

    While being logged in as root, you’ll have to edit the file /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades and set the value prompt to normal.

    vi /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades
    set prompt=normal

    The update process will update your server to every single releases of Ubuntu (200MB download for each step and a restart required)

    apt-get update
    apt-get upgrade
    apt-get install update-manager-core
    do-release-upgrade -d

    You are now on Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat run one more time:

    do-release-upgrade

    You are now on Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal run one more time:

    do-release-upgrade

    to finally enjoy using Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot!

    Ubuntu version names

    • Ubuntu 11.10 - the current stable version, released in October 2011, codenamed Oneiric Ocelot.
    • Ubuntu 11.04 - previous version, released in April 2011, codenamed Natty Narwhal.
    • Ubuntu 10.10 - previous version, released in October 2010, codenamed Maverick Meerkat.
    • Ubuntu 10.04 LTS - the current long term support version, released in April 2010, codenamed Lucid Lynx.
  • Thanks to Nathan Rennie-Waldock. you can have the latest PHP5 5.3.10 running in Ubuntu Oneiric, Natty, Maverick and Lucid.

    PHP 5.3.10 fixes critical remote code execution vulnerability

    The vulnerability was introduced by the fix for a hash collision denial-of-service flaw

    Proof-of-concept code that exploits this vulnerability has already been published online

    Nathan Rennie-Waldock Personal Package Archives (PPA) is located at https://launchpad.net/~nathan-renniewaldock/+archive/ppa

    Just run as root the following to use PHP 5.3.10

    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nathan-renniewaldock/ppa
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade

    Canonical should be a little bit ashamed to not deliver these security patches for the server edition! relying on individuals to provide the latest version of secure software is not promoting Linux in enterprise.

  • Thanks to Ondřej Surý,&160; maintainer for some Debian packages, you can have the latest PHP5 maintained by Debian PKG PHP Team in Ubuntu Oneiric, Natty, Maverick and Lucid.

    Currently it is the previous version 5.3.9, but that’s already a lot better than 5.3.6 (Official in Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric). I did contact Ondřej to ask him for updating the Personal Package Archive to 5.3.10.

    Personal Package Archives (PPA) allow you to upload Ubuntu source packages to be built and published as an apt repository by Launchpad.

    Ondřej Surý’s Personal Package Archives (PPA) is located at https://launchpad.net/~ondrej/+archive/php5

    Just run as root the following to use PHP 5.3.9

    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php5 
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade

    I did create an account at https://launchpad.net/~cedric-walter just in case I would like to build some packages for Ubuntu.

  • RPMs

    APT repositories

    • http://linux01.gwdg.de/apt4rpm/  This is an apt repository for SuSE as well. It's not run by SuSE but it integrates very well into their distribution.
    • ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/linux/suse/apt/SuSE/9.2-i386/
      Here you find a lot of packages (mplayer, xine, kernels, and much more). The repository is organized in folders. Browse them first, to understand the packages you need (and in what folders they are). Then, you'll have to install apt and apt-libs (from the dir called "suser-rbos"). Then, add the directories you need to you apt/sources.list. Import the GPG keys, and you'll be able to use apt to install unofficial packages.

    here is the line you must add to the file sources.list:

    rpmftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/suse/apt/ SuSE/9.2-i386 suser-rbos packman-i686 packman base funktronics suser-scorot suser-tcousin suser-ollakka suser-oc2pus suser-jogley suser-gbv suse-people suser-guru suser-sbarnin rpmkeys ximian xorg wine

    You usually have to wait a bit for the "base" directory to be filled with official packages, So apt may fail when it deals with the base dir.

  • tatice-linux-tux-10409

    For day to day hacker, they may be more elegant ways to do it (PERL, AWK), but they have work well for me.

    • Upper case file name or variable,
    • Search and replace in all files content recursively,
    • Renaming all files recursively,
    • Renaming all directory recursively,
    • Copying a set of files from one directory to the other and preserving hierarchy.

    Upper case file name or variable

    function toUpper {
    echo "$1" | sed 'y/abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz/ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ/'&160;&160;
    # or
    # echo "$1" | tr -s&160; '[:lower:]'&160; '[:upper:]'
    }

    Usage:

    • in a script toUpper “cedric”
    • assign to a variable in a script result=$(toUpper $variable) or result=$(toUpper “cedric”)

    Search and replace in all files content recursively

    This can go through all directories

    • $3 as base directory
    • Search for $1
    • Replace with $2

    function searchAndReplaceRecursively {
    echo "replace '$1' with '$2' in dir '$3'";
    for file in `find $3 -type f`;
    do
    echo -ne ".";
    sed -e 's/'$1'/'$2'/g' $file > /tmp/tempfile.tmp
    mv /tmp/tempfile.tmp $file
    done
    echo "";
    }

    Usage:

    • in a script searchAndReplaceRecursively “cedric” “unix” .

    Renaming all files recursively

    This can go through all directories, renaming all files based on parameters:

    • $3 as base directory,
    • Search for $1 in filename,
    • Replace with $2 in filename.

    function renameFilenameRecursively {
    for file in `find $3 -type f`;
    do
    newFilename=`basename $file | sed -e 's/'$1'/'$2'/g'`;
    dirs=`dirname $file`;
    mv $file $dirs/$newFilename;
    done
    }

    Usage:

    • in a script renameFilenameRecursively “cedric” “unix” .

    Renaming all directory recursively

    This can go through all directories, renaming all directories based on parameters:

    • $3 as base directory
    • Search for $1 in directory name
    • Replace with $2 in directory name
    • in bold, you can put either
      • *$1 the pattern has to be at end of directory name,
      • $1* the pattern has to be at beginning of directory name,
      • *$1* the pattern has to be in the middle of directory name,
      • remove the case all together, the grep $1 filter already the result of the command find.

    function renameDirectoriesRecursively {
    for adir in `find $3 -type d | grep $1`;
    do
    case $adir in
    *$1* )
    newdirname=$( echo "$adir" | sed -e 's/'$1'/'$2'/g' );
    echo Found $adir will be renamed to $newdirname;
    mv $adir $newDirName;
    esac
    done
    }

    Usage:

    • in a script renameDirectoriesRecursively “cedric” “unix” .

    Copying a set of files from one directory to the other and preserving hierarchy

    # find . -name $1 -exec cp -r --parents {} $destination \;

  • sony_playstation_eye

    The PlayStation Eye is a webcam device by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 3 video game console. It is the successor to the EyeToy for the PlayStation 2. In case you have one floating around that you do not use for gaming, why not trying to use it as a webcam? You can find them cheap everywhere on ebay, ricardo.ch, leboncoin.fr

    It is not anymore difficult to make this webcam work under Windows (Sony sell this camera since 2007), as there is good and stable drivers now available. I did test the webcam under Windows 7 64 bits and Skype. It work great as long as there is enough lights in the room.Note that the multi-directional microphone is quite exceptional of quality (The PS3 use it for voice location tracking, echo cancellation, and background noise suppression.)

     

    Features

     

    windows_logo Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7

    The CL-Eye Platform Driver recommended for general users provides audio/video functionality with a single CL/PS3-Eye camera supported in a wide range of native and web applications that use Microsoft Windows DirectShow Framework (Skype, YouTube, Adobe Flash, AIM, MSN Messenger).

    macos_logo MacOS

    A working driver for MacOS can be downloaded from http://webcam-osx.sourceforge.net/

    tux Linux

    Starting with Linux kernel 2.6.29, just plug your PlayStation Eye in a free USB port and enjoy. Tested under OpenSuse 10.2

  • Essential for any advanced Linux users or Linux sys-admin Smile

    The color coded Legend / Keys helps provide guidance for your experience level.

    •   Green = Essential
    •   Yellow = Basic
    •   Orange / Blue = Advanced
    •   Red = Expert

    vim_cheat_sheet_for_programmers_print

    Links

    All credits to http://michael.peopleofhonoronly.com/vim/

  •  

    LOGO_virtualized_vmware_S

    You'll need a lot of patience...Since there is no VMWARE Converter for Linux...

    My objective is to virtualizes my Internet server running SUSE in a VMWARE to ease the migration to a more powerful and up to date server.

     

    I am using RSYNC since:

    • I have no access to the machine, So I can't stop the server and make a binary images of the disk as the server is in a STRATO data center in Germany (Berlin)
    • I don't like operations down time.

    I HAVE TO virtualize my server because:

    • The operating system SuSE is too old and is no more security patches available.
    • I want to have a local reference in VMWARE of my Internet server.

    This tutorial can be see as an add-on of this one : http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/9942 (very good by the way) I just complete the missing steps or document some issues I've encountered..

    On your server, run

    # fdisk -l

    Disk /dev/sda: 164.6 GB, 164696555520 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 20023 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

       Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/sda1   *           1           7       56196   fd  Linux raid autodetect
    /dev/sda2               8         138     1052257+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
    /dev/sda3             139       20023   159726262+  fd  Linux raid autodetect

    Disk /dev/sdb: 164.6 GB, 164696555520 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 20023 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

       Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/sdb1   *           1           7       56196   fd  Linux raid autodetect
    /dev/sdb2               8         138     1052257+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
    /dev/sdb3             139       20023   159726262+  fd  Linux raid autodetect

    Disk /dev/md0: 57 MB, 57475072 bytes
    2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 14032 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes

    Disk /dev/md0 doesn't contain a valid partition table

    Disk /dev/md1: 163.5 GB, 163559571456 bytes
    2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 39931536 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes

    Disk /dev/md1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

    This is how partitions look like, sda1 is the root partition, sda2 is a swap partition and sda3 is my home.  The server use a RAID0 with 2 * 160GB disk.

    You'll have to recreate them in the virtual machine. Nothing force me to have a RAID0 also in my VMWARE. I will only create a normal disk layout (sda1,sda2, sda3). Save this output in a text file for further references. By reading the fstab, I will  be able to look at the mount point name later. On your server, run:

    # cat /etc/fstab
    /dev/md1        /       ext3    acl,user_xattr,usrquota 1       1
    /dev/md0            /boot                ext2       acl,user_xattr        1 2
    /dev/sda2            swap                 swap       pri=42                0 0
    /dev/sdb2            swap                 swap       pri=42                0 0

    devpts               /dev/pts             devpts     mode=0620,gid=5       0 0
    proc                 /proc                proc       defaults              0 0
    sysfs                /sys                 sysfs      noauto                0 0

    Download VMWARE Server, you'll have to register and will receive a limited in time version.

    Create a new Virtual machine matching as close as possible the distribution you are using on your production server. Boot the virtual machine with a Knoppix CD, type knoppix 2 at boot time to jump into console mode of Knoppix. Use cfdisk to create the same partition layout, this tool is very easy to use (use bottom menu). Use the same file system, partitions can be set bigger or smaller depending on your intentions with the virtual machine (backup or replacement of a productive machine). My Old server was using GRUB (and not GRUB2), GRUB do not accept to install a boot loader on partition with 256-byte inodes. Unfortunately this is exactly what cfdisk  create as default!

    The quickest and easiest option (when you have control of file system creation) is to format any new Ext3 file systems with 128-byte inodes. This command tells you your e2fsprogs version:

    # mke2fs -V
    mke2fs 1.40.8 (13-Mar-2008)
    Using EXT2FS Library version 1.40.8

    This is the usual command for creating new Ext3 file systems with e2fsprogs:

    # mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda1

    The newer versions that default to 256-byte inodes will emit this warning, and create your new file system anyway:

    Warning: 256-byte inodes not usable on older systems

    To force the creation of 128-byte inodes partitions:

    # mkfs.ext3 -I 128 /dev/sda1

    You can check your work with tune2fs, if you read 128 it is OK to continue

    # tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep -i ‘inode size
    Inode size: 128

    Create new file system

    According to the # cat /etc/fstab

    # sudo mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sda1
    # sudo mkswap /dev/sda2
    # sudo mkfs -t ext2 /dev/sda3

    creating fylsystem

    RSYNC your data

    The example in article was not using a SSH connection with secure keys. If you use public private key pair (recommended), just copy your public, private key in Knoppix root home

    # su
    # cd ~/.ssh

    I have my RSA key on a USB stick, Knoppix mount it thanks to UDEV automatically

    # cp /mnt/usbstick/id_rsa* .

    Try to connect to your host

    # ssh -l root yourHostOrIP

    You'll be prompted for your pass phrase, enter it, if everything work...its time to sync the first partition /mnt/sda1

    # rsync -avx --numeric-ids --progress yourHostOrIP:/ /mnt/sda1/

    You'll be prompted for your pass phrase, enter it, if everything work just wait, when finished do the same for the second partition /mnt/sda3

    # rsync -avx --numeric-ids --progress yourHostOrIP:/home/ /mnt/sda3/

    That was easy.. the most difficult is to make this virtual machine boot, and that mean play with GRUB...

    TO BE CONTINUED... next part this week

  • Download and install VMware Player 4.0.2 to run this Virtual Appliance “Ubuntu 11.10 x64 Server”

    ubuntu-logo_05

    Ready to user stock Ubuntu 64 bit Desktop 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot) on Vmware

    This virtual appliance may be used by multi purpose operations, such as source control management server, development server, ftp server, and so on…

    &160;



    Download for FREE Ubuntu 11.10 x64 Desktop.7z (4.65GB) for Vmware&160;

    From http://linux.waltercedric.com/

    • VM Information
      • CPU's :1
      • Memory :1G
      • Disk :20G
    • Authentication Credentials
      • Username :user
      • Password :user1234

    Root password is not set!

    Some operating systems does not enable root password by default in order to protect the system files. In these systems, user may gain root access by using "sudo" command, with determining his/her own password.

    Example : with this command, user will be able of restarting the system.

    sudo init 1 user

    If the system does not set root password during the installation time, again by default we are not setting any root password.

    But if you want to enable the root password, after logging in with your user you may always use the command

    sudo passwd root

    and then start to use the root account too.

  • Download and install the latest&160; VMware Player 4.0.2 to run this Virtual Appliance “Ubuntu 11.10 x64 Server”

    ubuntu-logo_0

    Ready to user stock Ubuntu 64 bit Server 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot) on Vmware

    This virtual appliance may be used by multi purpose operations, such as source control management server, development server, ftp server, or for testing some changes before rolling them out against your productive server and so on…

    &160;

    &160;

    Download for FREE&160; Ubuntu 11.10 x64 Server.7z (2.2GB) for Vmware

    From http://linux.waltercedric.com/

    • VM Information
      • CPU's :1
      • Memory :1G
      • Disk :20G
    • Authentication Credentials
      • Username :user
      • Password :user1234

    Root password is not set!

    Some operating systems does not enable root password by default in order to protect the system files. In these systems, user may gain root access by using "sudo" command, with determining his/her own password.

    Example : with this command, user will be able of restarting the system.

    sudo init 1 user

    If the system does not set root password during the installation time, again by default we are not setting any root password.

    But if you want to enable the root password, after logging in with your user you may always use the command

    sudo passwd root

    and then start to use the root account too.

  • joomla_cms

    Digital watermarking is the process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal. The signal may be audio, pictures or video, for example. If the signal is copied, then the information is also carried in the copy. In visible watermarking, the information is visible in the picture or video. Typically, the information is text or a logo which identifies the owner of the media.[Wikipedia]

     

    I decide to go with an offline watermarking first, but you can let any Joomla!® extension watermark picture on the fly using php and .htaccess (at the cost of additional CPU server resources).

     

    Why Watermarking pictures?

    There is a lot of reasons, among others:

    • To limit images stealing, advanced users will still be able to crop/blur your watermark through!
    • To drive more new users/returning visitors to your site, anybody using your images in a forums may want to visit your site if the watermark can be read (don’t use complex logo, except if you have a well known brand)
    • To advertise your online work,

    Attention

    The first thing to do is to make a backup of your images! applying a watermarking is a non reversible process, usually this mean for Joomla!® to save your /images/stories directory

    You’ll have to decide what size you want your photos to be displayed at and how much space the text or logo will take up. Keep it small enough so as not to ruin the photo.

    Create a watermark using GIMP

    Download the excellent GIMP if not already done.

    Create a new picture with transparent background

    watermark.in.gimp.02 

    Using the text tool, create a black or white title, you can also import/create an original logo.

    watermark.in.gimp

    Save the file using a .png or .gif extension, don’t use .jpg as it don’t handle transparency

    Result:

    watermark 

    Prepare your Linux server

    My script require you to install ImageMagick

    ImageMagick®  is a software suite to create, edit, and compose bitmap images. It can read, convert and write images in a variety of formats (over 100) including DPX, EXR, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PDF, PhotoCD, PNG, Postscript, SVG, and TIFF. Use ImageMagick to translate, flip, mirror, rotate, scale, shear and transform images, adjust image colors, apply various special effects, or draw text, lines, polygons, ellipses and Bézier curves.

    ImageMagick install in OpenSuse

    As root run

    # zipper in ImageMagick

    ImageMagick install in Debian

    As root run

    # apt-get install ImageMagick

    Features

    Support dir name and filename space

    Support space in path and filename, not so easy as you think. Bash force me to use “” around variables to support space in path and use a while loop instead of a for loop to support space in filename.

    Scan you directories

    Scan your directories recursively for all pictures starting starting from the current directory (.).

    Do not watermark all pictures

    I don’t want to apply a watermark to all my pictures, I have decided to check against the size of the images and apply only if a threshold is reach (here all images bigger in width than 1024 pixels). The command identify allow you to retrieve the characteristics of any pictures

    geometry=$(identify $each)

    return for example

    ./desktop.jpg JPEG 1024x819 1024x819+0+0 DirectClass 8-bit 94.8613kb

    Add a bit of Bash REGEX magic (since 2004 with bash 4.0) to correctly identify picture size

    regex="([0-9]*)x([0-9]*)"

    and voila! I can now use $height and $width in my function.

    Limitations

    Do not run the script twice or more

    Do not run the script twice or more on same directory/sub directories, or the watermark will get darker and darker. The code do not check if any watermark already exist, and apply the same watermark over and over pictures that reach the threshold.

    Installation

    The script must be runnable

    # chmod u+x watermark.sh

    Configuration

    open the file watermark.sh

    # vi watermark.sh

    and change all variables value at the top

    Position of the Text Watermark

    You can position the text using the following Gravity, possible values are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, SouthEast.

    NorthWest North NorthEast
         
      Center  
         
    SouthWest South SouthEast

    If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom edges.

    See more details HERE  

    The bash script

    Source Code

     

     

    #!/bin/bash
    echo "*******************************************"
    echo "* Image Watermarking Script               *"
    echo "* By Cedric Walter - www.waltercedric.com *"
    echo "* Licence GNU/GPL v3 or later              *"
    echo "*******************************************"
    echo " "
    
    BASEDIR=.
    
    WATERMARK="/srv/www/vhosts/waltercedric.com/httpdocs/watermark.png"
    
    Below this width no watermark will be apllied
    MIN_PIC_HEIGHT=600
    MIN_PIC_WIDTH=800
    
    # NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the
    # right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. # Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast
    # gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom edges. WATERMARK_POSITION=northeast Transparency percentage TRANSPARENCY_PERCENTAGE=15 normal user dont change below #this use bash regular expression capabilities regex="([0-9]*)x([0-9]*)" function applyWatermarkForExtension { find $BASEDIR -type f -name "$1" | while read each do geometry=$(identify "$each") echo $geometry if [[ ${geometry} =~ ${regex} ]]; then echo "$geometry matches" i=1 n=${BASH_REMATCH[*]} width=${BASH_REMATCH[$i]} let i++ height=${BASH_REMATCH[$i]} echo width=$width height=$height if [ $width -gt $MIN_PIC_WIDTH ];then echo "Working on $each..." composite -gravity $WATERMARK_POSITION -dissolve $TRANSPARENCY_PERCENTAGE $WATERMARK "$each" "$each" 2> /dev/null echo "... Done!" fi fi done } add new pictures extensions here applyWatermarkForExtension "*.jpg" applyWatermarkForExtension "*.gif" applyWatermarkForExtension "*.png" applyWatermarkForExtension "*.jpeg" exit 0

    Download

    Download from my download section.

    references

  • Robust, reliable memory-protected architecture;
    Excellent throughput, with multiple options for RealTime response;
    Fault isolation/management, limiting fatal errors to single (restartable) processes;
    Availability of communication protocols, tools, and device-driver support;
    Support for key CPU architectures; and Large, worldwide development community offering quality software.
  • Found on slashdot.org a poster has state:

    "I once built a very secure linux version. Here is the sorts of things it I did.
    1) It had no shells of any sort, nor any user interface of any sort.
    2) It would not mount any filesystem whose CDs meet a certain checksum (this avoided mounting random data). CDs that had the right checksum it would automatically run a program with a particular name. This was the sole way to introduce new software/issue commands to the system.
    3) It only about 4 open ports, and 2 for getting data and 2 it used to sending the data out.
    4) It was stripped having almost no software except the bare mimimum needed to run 2 apps. It used a minimal set of libraries missing any links that weren't needed for the included software. All the apps and all the libraries had their names scrambled (using a hash generator) so apache might be something like /vksjl39/skl9394/i8843nvnnf. This made the box harder to get around. The result most pieces of gcc software wouldn't have run at all with a great deal of knowledge about the box.
    5) It checksummed the bios to verify the bios wasn't corrupted (i.e. boot password was intact).
    6) Data on the drives were encrypted.
    Sound like a fun distribution to work on? On the other hand under computer generated network attacks (like say 10000 attacks per second) they system was able function fine indefinitely. Even somebody with physical access would have had to take a long time to hack the system. That is sort of the ultimate in Linux security. The goal of hardening a system it to reduce points of entry for people to issue privledged commands, and this is done by reducing features. And that means a decrease in usability."

    it is extreme :-)

  • Ive found a lot of useful and nice features in KDE desktop that I miss at work while using windows xp...
    • All windows can be keep above other and even when the application is not designed to do so (right click on a windows title and under "advanced" - "Keep above others")
    • KDE can be tuned through the control center a lot more and without any 3rd party tool. Moreover this control center is organized in a better way.
    • Killing an application is a lot more easier too, CTRL-ALT-ESC and a skull appear. At this point I remember how difficult it is to explain to a joe user how to locate a task in windows task manager and kill it... (especially if You also do not now the name of the task and hunt for it)). Note: a task manager can be launch under KDE with CTRL-ESC
    • In konqueror copying a image in a directory where it already exist, start a comparaison windows to help You to decide between overwriting or cancelling. Very useful
    • Hover on images, text or pdf and a preview pop-up in Konqueror (the default file manager)
    • A lot more view mode for your files 7 and all are nice depending on situation (only 4 in winxp)
    • KDE control center is a lot lot better and easier to understand compare to Windows control panel
    • You like an image and want to use it as a wallpaper? drag it on the desktop, a contextual windows will propose You to use it as wallpaper
    This is only a fraction of the possibility offered by KDE, the official WIKI is available here

    The best way to make KDE a try is to boot a free linux live CD (boot in 1 min and dont write any data on your disk, only use RAM memory) like knoppix -www.knopper.net/knoppix or any other live-cd flavours

    to continue...
  • These instructions were written using Knoppix version 3.7. It can be downloaded from http://www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html. This document is available online at http://www.shockfamily.net/cedric/knoppix/.and is very detailed. I hope You will never have to use it ;-) , but just in case, write down this internet page :-(

  • debunking myths and facts,
    http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/10/22/linux_v_windows_security/

    from the register,
    http://www.theregister.co.uk/security/security_report_windows_vs_linux/

    "Much ado has been made about whether or not Linux is truly more secure than Windows. We compared Windows vs. Linux by examining the following metrics in the 40 most recent patches/vulnerabilities listed for Microsoft Windows Server 2003 vs. Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS v.3:
    ...
    The results were not unexpected. Even by Microsoft's subjective and flawed standards, fully 38% of the most recent patches address flaws that Microsoft ranks as Critical. Only 10% of Red Hat's patches and alerts address flaws of Critical severity
    Also in PDF format here.

  • XBMC is a cross-platform software available for Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows operating-system, as well as the original Xbox game-console. I am using it since 2003 on my XBOX

    &160;

    XBMC is currently available for Ubuntu Linux, Mac OS X (Intel-based Leopard and Tiger), Microsoft Windows, and the original (first-generation) Xbox. We are currently at Beta 1 for our upcoming release code named Atlantis. It should be noted that XBMC requires OpenGL 1.4 support, at a minimum, to function. We do however recommend OpenGL 2.0 to fully experience XBMC. Check your graphics drivers to see what version of OpenGL your GPU (graphics processing unit) supports.

  • From XBOX-SCENE forums

    " An anonymous person at the German 23C3 Hacker Congress showed what could be an Xbox360 hack/exploit during one of the 'Lightning Talks'. Lightning Talks is a daily event at Chaos Communication Congress (C3/CCC). It consists in one hour of several short (limited to 5mins) talks.

    In a very short presentation a masked 'hacker' showed an Xbox 360 booting up King Kong (the game, by ubisoft). After loading the game a screen pops up showing an Xbox 360 logo, a Mac logo and Tux (the Linux Penguin) and the words "coming soon...". I also noticed a small PCB is hanging out of his Xbox360 and he's using a laptop (Apple Macbook pro?), but it's not really clear what he's doing with it.
    Those who followed hacking discussions might remember hackers did some research around the vector shaders in the King Kong demo on the Xbox 360 Kiosk Disc (that ran from recordable media). The demo (and final game too) allow to modify the shaders (they are not checked/signed). However no exploit to take control of the machine was found back then... so either this hacker found something here, or he's just showing us his custom modified shaders ;)
    That's all the details we got for now.

    If you don't believe the presentation was really given at 23C3, you can download the +560MB WMV video of the complete 'Lightning Talks' Day4 from the CCC mirrors (direct: mirror1, mirror2, mirror3, mirror4, mirror5, mirror6, mirror7). Forward to the 5th presentation and you'll find it there. However note that the video encoding is far from perfect and the audio seems to be broken/missing. The youtube video below shows just the Xbox 360 presentation, with audio:

    UPDATE1! Here are some updates from stuff people posted on our forums.
    Here's another footage of the presentation filmed by someone in the public.

    Some high-res pictures of the presentation. A bit easier to see that small PCB here. Pictures by Darkman at c3f2m.de:
    23C3 23C3 23C3

    Also interesting is the official description of the presentation on the CCC schedule site:
    [QUOTE]
    Title: Consolen Hacking Suprise (XBox360)
    Language: German
    Speaker(s): Anonym
    Description: The XBox360 was live hacked in front of the audience - running Linux and Mac OS coming soon. Stay tuned - a Linux kernel is already booting..
    [/QUOTE]
    "